In the past, management of natural resources, notably water and forests in Kenya has laid emphasis on protection through a command and control system by government with minimal participation of other stakeholders. Consequently, communities were alienated from these resources with no opportunity for participation and decision making.
Over time this created animosity between the natural resources managers and communities.
The previous natural resources management policies and legislations had inadequate provisions for community participation in natural resources management.
The result of this in the Mara River basin was worrying; a trend towards rapid forest encroachment, unsustainable utilization of forest resources, deteriorating river water quality, disruption of flow regimes in the Mara river and skewed distribution of benefits.
In Coastal Kenya, There are globally important coastal that are rich in biodiversity, recognized as global biodiversity hotspots and some hold important cultural values to the local Mijikenda community, nine of them being being enlisted as World Heritage Sites.